In developing and emerging countries, climate data are often of poor quality and do not meet the prerequisites for the provision of climate services for political decision-makers. In Peru and the Andean region, the importance of user-tailored climate services is recognized, but this requires better quality climate observations and more expert meteorologists and climatologists.
Flash floods are among the world’s deadliest natural disasters with more than 5 000 lives lost annually. Their social, economic and environmental impacts are significant. Accounting for approximately 85% of flooding cases, flash floods also have the highest mortality rate among different classes of flooding, including riverine and coastal. Flash floods differ from river floods in their short time scales and occurrence on small spatial scales, which makes flash flood forecasting a different challenge from large-river flood forecasting.