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“We venture by the present circular to invite the heads of Meteorological Institutes, the Meteorological and other Learned Societies, as well as private scientific men and practical observers in the domain of Meteorology, to this consultative meeting, which is to be held in Leipzig …” (From the invitation letter to the Meteorological Conference at Leipzig, August 1872)
The El Niño/Southern Oscillation has a major influence on climate patterns in various parts of the world. This naturally occurring phenomenon involves fluctuating ocean temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific, coupled with changes in the atmosphere. Scientific progress on the understanding and modelling of this phenomenon has improved prediction skills to within a range of one to nine months in advance, giving society the opportunity to prepare for associated hazards such as heavy rains, floods and drought.
The free and unrestricted exchange of observational data from all parts of the world and of other data products among all WMO Members must be updated and strengthened to accommodate the explosive growth in the demand for weather, climate, and water monitoring and prediction data to support essential services needed by all sectors of society, as they face issues such as climate change, increasing frequency and impact of extreme weather, and implications for food security .
The Scientific Advisory Panel shall draw up opinions and recommendations to Congress and to the Executive Council on matters concerning WMO research strategies and the optimal scientific directions to support the evolution of its mandate in weather, climate, water and related environmental and social sciences.
The Services Commission contributes to the development and implementation of globally harmonized weather, climate, water, ocean and environment related services and applications to enable informed decision making and realization of socioeconomic benefits by all user communities and society as a whole.
The Research Board translates the strategic aims of WMO and decisions of Executive Council and Congress into overarching research priorities, and ensures the implementation and coordination of the research programmes to achieve these priorities in accordance with the purposes of Organization defined in Article 2(f) of the Convention.