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Scientists have been observing changes in the climate that cannot be attributed solely to natural influences. These changes are occurring rapidly, are significant, and will have consequences for this and future generations. Changes in climate variability and extremes driven by human-induced climate change are some of the key challenges facing humanity.
Sand and dust storms are common meteorological hazards in arid and semi-arid regions. They are usually caused by thunderstorms – or strong pressure gradients associated with cyclones – which increase wind speed over a wide area. These strong winds lift large amounts of sand and dust from bare, dry soils into the atmosphere, transporting them hundreds to thousands of kilometres away. Some 40% of aerosols in the troposphere (the lowest layer of Earth’s atmosphere) are dust particles from wind erosion.
The WMO Global Campus is a collaborative network of institutions and National Meteorological Hydrological Services involved in the development and delivery of education and training in meteorology, climatology, hydrology and other related sciences. It is built on the synergies, sharing and cooperation between these institutions and will address global priorities and the growing and changing requirements and needs for learning in the community.
WMO supports UNFCCC through a wide range of scientific and technical inputs, including its support through the IPCC, thereby contributing to adaptation, mitigation and capacity development. Every year, WMO participates in sessions of the Conference of Parties (COP) of UNFCCC, providing the latest scientific advice and information to governments, including the Statement on the State of the Global Climate and the Greenhouse Gas Bulletin.
Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) produce consensus-based, user-relevant climate outlook products in real time through regional cooperation and partnership in order to reduce climate-related risks and support sustainable development for the coming season in sectors of critical socioeconomic significance for the region in question.