El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO)

The El Niño/La Niña Southern Oscillation (ENSO)  has a major influence on climate patterns in various parts of the world. This naturally occurring phenomenon involves fluctuating ocean temperatures in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific, coupled with changes in the atmosphere. Scientific progress on the understanding and modelling of this phenomenon has improved prediction skills to within a range of one to nine months in advance, giving society the opportunity to prepare for associated hazards such as heavy rains, floods and drought.

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FAQs - El Niño/La Niña

Find out how and why El Niño and La Niña events occur and other frequently asked questions.

Global Seasonal Climate Update

Global-scale seasonal forecasts, including those of precipitation and surface temperature, are routinely produced by WMO-accredited centres using sophisticated atmosphere-ocean coupled models, which take into account ENSO as well as other climate drivers. There are now 13 WMO Global Producing Centres of Long Range Forecasts, whose products are consolidated by a Lead Centre of Long Range Forecast Multi Model Ensemble